WHAT'S NEW IN INES?
Dateline: May 18, 2003
This is the weekly electronic information service of the International Network of Engineers and Scientists for Global Responsibility
Editor: Tobias Damjanov, e-mail:
WNII is archived at: http://inesglobal.org/archive.htm
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INES International Office
INES Chair: Prof. Armin Tenner [Please note that the first "1" in q18 is the number one, while the last "l" is an "L"]
CONTENTS of WNII No. 15/2003
MEMBERSHIP AND PROJECTS NEWS
New INESAP Information Bulletin out now
The latest Information Bulletin (No. 21, April 2003) of the International Network of Engineers and Scientists Against Proliferation (INESAP) carries the following:
- Editorial: Shock and Awe Destroy Order and Law. The New American Dream is a Nightmare (J. Scheffran)
Non-Proliferation and Preventive War:
- Blix Updates Security Council on Iraq [on 7 March 03)
- El Baradei Update on Nuclear Inspections in Iraq [as of 7 March 03]
- Before You Become Too Flushed With Victory (D. Krieger)
- Losing All Three Wars on Iraq (J. Řberg)
- Military Capabilities in the Middle East (Chr. Mölling/G. Neuneck)
- Appeal for an Advisory Opinion (IALANA)
- Open Letter on the Use of DU (IPPNW)
- The Looming Crisis (T. Savage)
- Stepwise Approaches to Resolve the North Korean Nuclear Conundrum (J. Kang)
Nuclear Non-Proliferation under Review:
- The Majority Opinion (J. Boomfield/P. S. Meidell)
- The NPT Under Siege (A. Slater)
- New Approaches to Nuclear Verification and Nuclear Security (T. Rauf)
- New Brazilian Government and Nuclear Weapons (F. de Souza-Barros)
- Initiative for Northeast Asia Security (H. Umebayashi)
- Putting the Genie Back in the Bottle (A. Glaser)
Security & Preventive Disarmament:
- Arms Control, Transparency, and Verification in a European-Russian Framework of Cooperative Security (A. Lichterman)
- Breakdown of the Security Related Treaty Regimes? (I. A. Kenyon)
- The Terrorist Attacks of 9/11 and the Iraq War (P. Walker)
- European and Russian Interest in Disarmament (R. Timerbaev)
- The Bush Administration's Nuclear Policies and the Response of Citizens (D. Krieger)
Lessons from Control Regimes:
- Lessons from Various Arms Control Regimes (R. Timerbaev)
- Missile Norms in a Changing World (R. Rendell)
- Pros and Cons of the MTCR, and Efforts to Move Forward (M. Smith)
- Lessons from the NPT Regime (W. Liebert)
- U.S.-Russian Nuclear Arms Control (E. Miasnikov)
- The US Rejection of Bioweapons Verification and Implications for Future Negotiations (O. Meier)
- Lessons To Be Learned from the Chemical and Biological Weapons Convention (R. Trapp)
- Common Security in Outer Space (D. Wolter)
European Views on Missile Defense:
- Missile Defence and European Defence Policy (P. Bonnén)
- UK Position on Missile Defence (D. Webb)
- The Dutch Position on Missile Defence (W. van der Zeijden)
(Reducing) Nuclear Dangers:
- Affidavit on Plutonium Disposition (A. M. Macfarlane)
- National Ignition Facility Update (M. Kelley)
- Prisoners of the Nuclear Dream; edited by M. V. Rahmana and C. Rammanohar Reddy (reviewed by A. Vanaik)
- Website of the BioWeapons Prevention Project (BWPP) http://bwpp.org
- Verification Yearbook 2002; edited by T. Findlay and O. Meier
- INESAP Technical Report No. 2, 2002: The German Plutonium Balance for the Years 1968-1999; by M. B. Kalinowski, W. Liebert, and S. Aumann
- Supplement: Conference Minutes of "International Arms Control, Transparency and Verification in a European-Russian Framework of Cooperative Security", Berlin (Germany), 24- January 2003 (D. Chaffee)
For a copy, send your request to: < >
USA: Nuclear Age Peace Foundation "The Sunflower", May 2003, No. 72
The May 2003 issue of "The Sunflower" covers the following:
- Facing the Failures of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Regime (David Krieger and Devon Chaffee, April 23, 2003) For the full article see: http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/03.04/0423chaffee_npt.htm
- Iran's Statement to Members of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty
- Take Action:
- Celebrate Mothers Day; A Day for Peace (Did you know that the first Mothers' Day was declared by Julia Ward Howe in 1870 as a day for peace and disarmament? …)
- Is There Weapons of Mass Destruction Activity in Your Community? Conduct a Civilian Weapons Inspection For detailed information, visit: http://www.wagingpeace.org/new/getinvolved/civilianinspections.htm
- Countries Gather at Pivotal Nonproliferation Treaty Meeting
- Officials Speak Out Against New US Tactical Nuclear Weapons
- North Korea Claims to Possess Nuclear Weapons
- US Lab Produces Nuclear Weapon Pits, University to Fight for Lab Management
Invasion of Iraq:
- Iraqi Children Continued Victims of Cluster Bombs, US Defends Use
- Weapons of Mass Destruction Not Found in Iraq
- US General May Be Tried for War Crime in Iraq
Missiles & Missile Defense:
- US Missile Defense Agency Asks Congress for Blank Check
- Canada Considers Joining US Missile Defense
- India Tests Nuclear Capable Missile
Nuclear Waste & Energy:
- US and Russia Move Forward with MOX Fuel Project
- US Looks to Expand Nuclear Power Industry
- Depleted Uranium Weapons Used in War against Iraq
- Germany Okays Reactor Posing Major Proliferation Risk
- New Documents Released on Eve of Chernobyl Disaster Anniversary
- Deadlines for Foundation Writing Contests Approaching Swackhamer Peace Essay Contest: http://www.wagingpeace.org/new/programs/awardscontests/swackhamer/Swack_2003_rules.htm
- Barbara Mandigo Kelly Peace Poetry Awards: http://www.wagingpeace.org/new/programs/awardscontests/bmk/BMK_2003_rules.htm
- Advocacy Coordinator Attends Treaty Review in Geneva
- UC [University of California] Nuclear Free Students Confront Chancellors
- For a map of nuclear weapon sites from throughout the world see the website of Greenpeace International: http://archive.greenpeace.org/wmd/
- Greenpeace's deck of playing cards with the pictures of the known nuclear "bad guys" to provide guidance to the NPT delegates about who needed to disarm: http://www.greenpeace.org/features/details?item_id=226498
- In-depth reports from the NPT PrepCom provided by the Acronym Institute: http://www.acronym.org.uk/npt/index.htm
Back issues of The Sunflower are available at: http://www.wagingpeace.org/sf/backissues.html
THE US/UK WAR AGAINST IRAQ
US embassy launches reconstruction website (Source: Jordan Times, 7 May 03)
On 6 May, the US Embassy in Amman, Jordan, launched a new Iraqi reconstruction website Tuesday, dedicated to informing companies about American government support for Iraq reconstruction efforts and opportunities for businesses here, according to an embassy statement.
When accessing this new page, users will find information about contracts awarded to date by the US government and those that remain outstanding. There are also statements from the American government on reconstruction activities in the war-torn nation, as well as links to local and international press reports related to reconstruction activities, according to the embassy.
The web page can be accessed through at: http://www.usembassy-amman.org.jo and then clicking on the "Iraq Reconstruction" link on the left-hand side of the page.
US government efforts to begin the reconstruction of Iraq are being led by the US Department of Defence's Office for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance (ORHA), in association with the US Agency for International Development and the US Department of Commerce, according to the statement. The agencies, the statement added, are helping identify and prioritise critical reconstruction and humanitarian assistance needs, and are in the process of contracting private companies with much of the initial reconstruction work.
U.S. Colonel Admits 500 Tons of D.U. Were Used in Iraq (Source: Jay Shaft, Coalition For Free Thought In Media, 5 May 03)
In three separate interviews a U.S. Special Operations Command Colonel admitted that the U.S. and Great Britain fired 500 tons of D.U. munitions into Iraq. He has also informed that the G.B.U.-28 BLU 113 Penetrator Bunker Buster 5000 pound bomb contains D.U. in the warhead. He further admitted that privately the Pentagon has acknowledged the health hazards of D.U. for years. He asked to remain unnamed for obviously apparent safety reasons, and so that he may remain a valuable source of information. Jay Shaft, who has published one of the interviews stated, he had verified his identity and that his information is mostly accurate.
The full text of the interview with Jay Shaft is available from the WNII Editor as an rtf-formatted email attachment.
NOTE in addition a new DU-related website which is being operated by the Energy Justice Network. The website contains a very useful collection of DU lists and links: http://www.energyjustice.net/nuclear/du/
Iraqi villagers suffer radiation sickness after looting nuclear power plants (Source: The Telegraph, 11 May 03)
Doctors fear that hundreds of Iraqis may be suffering from radiation poisoning, following the widespread looting of the country's nuclear facilities. Seven nuclear facilities have been damaged or effectively destroyed by ransackers since the end of the war. Technical documents, sensitive equipment and barrels containing radioactive material are believed to have been stolen. Many residents in villages close to the huge Tuwaitha Nuclear Facility, about seven miles south of Baghdad, were showing signs of radiation illness last week, including rashes, acute vomiting and severe nosebleeds.
As Saddam Hussein's regime collapsed last month villagers began looting barrels of the uranium oxide, known as "yellowcake", from the site, which they then emptied to use to store water, milk and yoghurt.
Local hospitals have seen an influx of patients complaining of similar symptoms. "A lot of people seem to be affected," said one doctor. "It is deeply worrying."
Villagers said Iraqi officials arrived recently with Geiger counters. One said the men had measured areas where locals had emptied the contents of stolen barrels. "The Geiger counters were screaming," he said, adding that the officials had then instructed them to cover the areas in concrete.
The failure to secure the nuclear sites has fuelled criticism of American forces in Iraq. It is known that at the Tuwaitha facility there were significant quantities of partially enriched uranium, cesium, strontium and cobalt.
Besides Tuwaitha and the adjacent Baghdad Nuclear Research Centre, the Ash Shaykhili Nuclear Facility, the Baghdad New Nuclear Design Centre and the Tahadi Nuclear Establishment have all been looted.
March for Peace to Baghdad (Source: IPB mailing, 12 May 03)
On the following websites you can find the proposal for a March for Peace to Baghdad this summer:
- English: http://www.peacetrain.de/index_britain.htm
- French: http://www.peacetrain.de/index_france.htm
- German: http://www.peacetrain.de/index_deutsch.htm
Abolition 2000 homepage: http://www.abolition2000.org Grassroots News: http://www.napf.org/abolition2000/news/
More news on the NPT PrepCom in Geneva
On the NPT PrepCom Chairman summary (Source: Jim Wurst; UN Wire, 9 May 03):
- The International Network of Engineers and Scientists Against Proliferation (INESAP) gave one of 11 statements to the NPT PrepCom delegates on 30 April. This is available from the WNII Editor as an PDF-formatted email attachment.
- Rebecca Johnson, Director of The Acronym Institute for Disarmament Diplomacy, has published a NPT PrepCom Final Interim Report on May 9, which you can find at: http://www.acronym.org.uk/npt/index.htm
On 9 May, this year's NPT Preparatory Committee meeting ended. It was the second of three preparatory meetings leading up to the 2005 review conference for the treaty. The 2004 preparatory meeting is expected to make recommendations to the 2005 review conference. Therefore, this preparatory meeting was not expected to produce any concrete recommendations.
In his summary report of the meeting, Ambassador Laszlo Molnar of Hungary, the chairman of the Preparatory Committee for the 2005 Review Conference, wrote that states "stressed the increasingly grave threat to the treaty and international security posed by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, nuclear, biological and chemical. … The gravity of this threat reinforces the need to strengthen the treaty." Molnar's summary will be the starting point for the work next year.
North Korea, which withdrew from the treaty earlier this year, and Iran were criticized for not complying with the treaty in pursuit of nuclear weapons, while the nuclear weapons powers, in particular the United States, were criticized for not pursuing nuclear disarmament. The United States was also criticized for embracing military doctrines that envision more uses for nuclear weapons.
The summary made an oblique reference to concerns about U.S. nuclear policies by saying, "Concern and uncertainty about existing nuclear arsenals, new approaches to the future role of nuclear weapons, as well as the possible development of new generations of nuclear weapons were expressed."
The United States was particularly vocal during the session in charging that Iran is developing nuclear weapons in violation of the NPT. Andrew Semmel of the United States said he was pleased that Iran was specifically named, but "the summary has not gone far enough." He said, "Iran poses as fundamental a challenge as the NPT has ever faced." While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, Iran is developing technology "intended to support a nuclear weapons program," he added.
Amir Zamaninia of Iran said the U.S. allegation "clearly illustrates the U.S. policy of double standards" of accusing Iran while the United States is not complying with its disarmament obligations and ignoring the issue of nuclear weapons in Israel, which Zamaninia called "a proven and established proliferator." Israel is the only Middle East country not party to the NPT.
The paragraph on Iran in Molnar's summary noted that Iran has been asked to sign a new protocol with the IAEA that would give the agency greater access to the country's nuclear facilities to better judge if Iran is in full compliance with the NPT. Such a protocol would "enhance the confidence of states parties and help eliminate concerns regarding [Iran's] nuclear program," the summary said. But the summary did not repeat any of the charges the United States made.
With regard to a nuclear weapons-free zone in the Middle East, the summary said the goal "remained valid" and "called upon Israel to accede to the treaty as soon as possible and to place its nuclear facilities under comprehensive IAEA safeguards."
The summary also called on India and Pakistan to renounce their nuclear weapons and join the NPT as non-nuclear states. Only India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea are not parties to the NPT. East Timor ratified earlier this week, bringing the total of states parties to 188.
Abolition 2000 cooperation with Mayors for Peace and mobilisation for NPT
On 15 May, Xanthe Hall (IPPNW Germany) has disseminated the following information:
" After existing for 8 years, I am proud to announce that members of Abolition 2000 have once again discovered an exciting new proposal to revive the disarmament process and attract attention to the issue of the abolition of nuclear weapons.
Mayor Akiba of Hiroshima is launching a campaign within the "Mayors for Peace" movement to push for an accelerated timeline for the abolition of nuclear weapons. NGOs from Abolition 2000 in Geneva for the NPT PrepCom, that has just ended, have picked up on this idea and propose to work with mayors and cities (also involving the UN Peace Messager Cities, Nuclear Free Local Authorities and signers of the Abolition 2000 City Resolution) over the next two years to involve them in the NPT process. As Jackie Cabasso said "Nations have failed us, now it is time to turn to municipal democracy". Some details of this and further proposals are contained in the minutes of a founding meeting of the Abolition 2000 "NPT Mobilisation Group" and a letter to Akiba from Aaron Tovish of the NGO Committee on Disarmament. [These documents are available from the WNII Editor as rtf-formatted email attachments.]
Anyone is welcome to join the NPT mobilisation group and can subscribe to the list serve by writing a message to:
< > without any text.
Best wishes to you all"
Briefing papers on North Korea
- "The Crisis in North Korea" is the title of a briefing paper of the British American Security Information Council (BASIC). It is written by Rich Carlson, an intern with BASIC working on nuclear and transatlantic security issues. He is a graduate of Marist College in New York. The paper has been disseminated as BASIC Notes (23 April 2003).
- The May issue of "Arms Control Today" has published the article "Back to Normal. The North Korea Nuclear Crisis: A Strategy for Negotiations". It is written by Alan D. Romberg, a senior associate at the Henry L. Stimson Center, and Michael D. Swaine, a senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and co-director of its China program.
Both papers are available from the WNII Editor as an rtf-formatted email attachment.
US Senate panel votes to end low-yield nukes ban (Source: Associated Press, 9 May 03)
On 9 May, a Senate committee said it had voted to lift a decade-old ban on the research and development of low-yield nuclear weapons, overriding Democratic arguments that repeal would damage U.S. efforts to stop the spread of nuclear arms.
"This is a major shift in American policy," said Sen. Carl Levin of Michigan, the panel's top Democrat. "It just sort of makes a mockery of our argument around the world that other countries--India, Pakistan-- should not test and North Korea and Iran should not obtain."
But John Warner, R-Va., chairman of the Armed Services Committee, said, "Without committing to deployment, research on low-yield nuclear weapons is a prudent step to safeguard America from emerging threats and enemies."
The committee agreed to lift the ban as part of a bill authorizing US$400.5 billion in 2004 defense activities. The measure was approved in closed session.
The total is slightly more than the amount requested by the Bush administration and about 4.7 percent more than was appropriated by Congress last year. The bill does not include the cost of the Iraq war, part of which was included in an US$80 billion spending package approved last month.
Low-yield nuclear weapons have warheads of less than five kilotons, or about a third of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima in World War II. Combined with precision missiles, low-yield weapons could be used to hit a target without causing as much damage to surrounding areas as other nuclear weapons would. The weapon would burrow into the earth and detonate, making it potentially useful against deep underground bunkers. The bill authorizes US$15 million to continue studying it.
Opponents of the weapons question whether they are needed, given the force of the United States' conventional arsenal. Some fear they would make presidents less reluctant to use nuclear weapons in war.
USA: The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) (Source: MoveOn Bulletin, 9 May 03; provided by INES Executive Committee Member Jiri Matousek)
The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is a Washington-based neo-conservative think-tank founded in 1997 to "rally support for American global leadership." PNAC's agenda runs far deeper than regime change in Iraq. Its statement of principles begins with the assertion that "American foreign and defense policy is adrift" and calls for "a Reaganite policy of military strength and moral clarity."
While their tone is high-minded, their proposal is unilateral military intervention to protect against threats to America's status as the lone global superpower. The statement is signed by such influential figures as Dick Cheney, Jeb Bush, Lewis "Scooter" Libby, Dan Quayle, Donald Rumsfeld, and Paul Wolfowitz.
PNAC is not alone, nor did it arise from new wells of power. Most of the founding members of PNAC held posts in the Reagan or elder Bush administration and other neo-conservative think-tanks, publications, and advocacy groups.
The effect of PNAC's ideology is great on Bush -- the presidential candidate who promised a "humble," isolationist foreign policy. The events of September 11, 2001 provided a window of opportunity for furthering PNAC's agenda of American empire. Understanding that agenda can help us anticipate the Bush administration's next steps and organize accordingly.
Useful links extracted from the MoveOn Bulletin
- An article from the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel covers the influence of PNAC in Bush's decision to go to war with Iraq. As the author writes, the goal is to transform the Middle East through a show of U.S. military might and "the obvious place to start is with Iraq, which was already in trouble with the United Nations, had little international standing and was reviled even by some Arab nations."
- In 1992, Paul Wolfowitz, then-Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, authored an internal policy brief on America's military posture in the post-Cold War era: to prevent the emergence of a new rival power through preemption rather than containment and acting unilaterally if necessary to protect U.S. interests. When a draft was leaked to the press, controversy erupted and the report had to be softened. The web accompaniment to the PBS Frontline special "The War Behind Closed Doors" features an excellent chronology showing how Wolfowitz's draft would become the basis of the Bush Doctrine. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/iraq/etc/cron.html
- An important step in PNAC's chronology is its major publication, "Rebuilding America's Defenses: Strategy, Forces and Resources For a New Century" (RAD), released in September, 2000. RAD rejects cuts in defense spending, insisting that "Preserving the desirable strategic situation in which the United States now finds itself requires a globally preeminent military capability both today and in the future." Core missions for the U.S. military include the ability to "fight and decisively win multiple, simultaneous major theater wars" and to reposition permanent forces in Southeast Europe and Southeast Asia. You can read the entire document on PNAC's website: http://www.newamericancentury.org/publicationsreports.htm
- Shortly after September 11, PNAC sent a letter to President Bush welcoming his call for "a broad and sustained campaign" and encouraging the removal of Saddam even if Iraq could not be directly linked to the attacks. http://www.newamericancentury.org/Bushletter.htm
- "Most neo-conservative defense intellectuals have their roots on the left, not the right." Michael Lind argues in the New Statesman and Salon magazines that many were anti-Stalinist Trotskyists who became anti-communist liberals, then shifted to a "militaristic and imperial right with no precedents in American culture or political history." http://dupagepeace.home.att.net/bush7.html
- Paul Wolfowitz is Deputy Defense Secretary, second-in-command at the Pentagon. Wolfowitz was promoting regime change in Iraq and a strategy of preemptive attack in 1992, but the elder Bush rejected his views as too radical. This is an excellent brief from the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: http://www.moveon.org/r?436
- Richard Perle was Assistant Secretary of Defense in the Reagan administration and a foreign policy adviser in George W. Bush's presidential campaign. He accepted Rumsfeld's offer to chair the Defense Policy Board, transforming it from obscurity to influence. In March, Perle resigned as chairman after a controversial lobbying scandal, but remains on the Board as a member: http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030317fa_fact
- William Kristol is editor of The Weekly Standard, a conservative political magazine with a small but elite readership, funded by Rupert Murdoch. The son of neo-conservative founding father Irving Kristol, he is the president of PNAC: http://www.mediatransparency.org/people/bill_kristol.htm
- A fairly complete list of PNAC participants can be found here: http://www.opednews.com/new%20american%20century.htm
- The Bradley Foundation, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is the primary funder of PNAC through PNAC's parent New Citizenship Project, Inc. With the largest assets of any right-wing foundation, Bradley has focused its efforts on ending affirmative action, reforming welfare, and privatizing schools. This article describes Bradley's funding of neo-conservative think-tanks, magazines, and books like "The Bell Curve." http://www.mediatransparency.org/funders/bradley_foundation.htm
- Nearly all PNAC participants, whether Jewish or Christian, are right-wing Zionists who support Ariel Sharon's Likud Party. In 1996, Richard Perle, Douglas Feith, and others drafted a paper for incoming Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu urging him to make "a clean break" from the Oslo peace process preferring "peace through strength," including the ouster of Saddam Hussein. http://www.israeleconomy.org/strat1.htm
- PNAC participants are backing Ahmed Chalabi of the Iraqi National Congress in his bid to run the interim government in Iraq. From The American Prospect, who is Chalabi and why is he so popular with the neo-conservatives? http://www.prospect.org/print/V13/21/dreyfuss-r.html
- This piece from Foreign Policy in Focus discusses a 2000 Middle East Forum study calling for military force against Syria. The report, "Ending Syria's Occupation of Lebanon: The U.S. Role," was signed by numerous PNAC participants: http://www.fpif.org/commentary/2003/0304uscfl.html
- The Peace Education Fund and California Peace Action have launched a national advertising campaign that features the infamous photo of Donald Rumsfeld shaking hands with Saddam Hussein. The ads ask the question: "Who Are We Arming Now?" The ad is part of Peace Action's Campaign for a New American Foreign Policy which is building political pressure for an alternative to the bleak vision of the Project for the New American Century. http://www.moveon.org/r?437
You can subscribe to the MoveOn Bulletin at: http://www.moveon.org/moveonbulletin/
CONFERENCES, MEETINGS, SEMINARS
2nd Nagasaki Global Citizens' Assembly for the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons
- Date: 22-24 November 2003
- Venue: Nagasaki, Japan
- Hosted by the Organizing Committee of the Nagasaki Global Citizens' Assembly for the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons
Saturday, 22 Nov
- Keynote Addresses (D. Rouche, R. Johnson, S. Lee, A. Vanaik)
- Welcome Gathering
- Workshop 1: Nuclear-Free Zone Local Authorities
- Workshop 2: Journalists' Workshop
Sunday, 23 Nov
- Workshop 3: Northeast Asia Nuclear Weapon Free Zones and Nuclear Umbrella (D. Shen)
- Workshop 4: The US Nuclear Posture Review (R. Green)
- Workshop 5: Peace Education and Culture of Peace (K. Dewes)
- Workshop 6: Forum for Parliamentarians for Nuclear Disarmament (A. Ware)
- Workshop 7: Toward the 2005 NPT Review Conference (R: Hagen)
- Workshop 8: Hibakusha Forum / Movie Presentation by "Ten Feet Movement"
Monday, 24 Nov
- Showing of Local Anti-Nuclear TV Programs
- Field Excursion to A-Bombed Sites
- Workshop Reports
- Adoption of Nagasaki Appeal
- Portrait Walk
For more details, contact the Nagasaki Foundation for the Promotion of Peace: < >
INES WEB AND E-MAIL SERVICE
No new or changed email or web addresses in this issue. All INES e-mail addresses and homepages are available upon request from: