INTERNATIONAL NETWORK OF
ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS
FOR GLOBAL RESPONSIBILITY
INES NEWSLETTER No. 25, May 1999
Science and Globalisation: Implications for Developing Countries, V.V. Krishna
IPB statement on Kosovo: Peace Movements oppose both ethnic cleansing and bombing
A letter from Serbia, Branka Jovanovic
Statement by André Jaeglé
NAPF calls new diplomatic efforts and an end to NATO air strikes
Perspectives of European science and research policy (Conference program)
A word from the editor, Armin Tenner
Regional INES contacts
International Society on Optics Within Life Sciences (OWLS)
Nuclear policy and security (Conference program)
Womens International League for Peace and Freedom Petition
INES Council 1999, Vienna
Ethical criteria for space use, Ruben Apressyan
Challenges for Science and Engineering in the 21st Century, conference announcement
The INES Newsletter
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Science and Globalisation:
Implications for Developing Countries
Dr. V.V. Krishna is an Associate Professor in Science Policy at the Centre for Studies in Science Policy, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067. He holds a Ph.D. degree in Sociology of Science from the University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia. Dr Krishna has 20 years research experience in the areas of sociology of science, science and technology policy studies and social history of science. He published 25 research papers and four books which include, Scientific Communities in the Developing Countries, New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1997; and Science and Technology in a Developing World, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. He is the founder-editor of Science, Technology & Society an International Journal Devoted to the Developing World, published through Sage Publications. Dr. Krishna is a consultant to UNESCO, Paris, for its programmes on electronic publishing in the developing countries and World Science Report 1998 & 2000. He is a Council Member of the Society for Social Studies of Science (4S), USA and Member, International Council for Science Policy Studies, ICSU, UNESCO, Paris. Dr. Krishna is a member of the Advisory Board of the INES Conference "Challenges for Science and Engineering in the 21st Century."
Of various facets, we will focus our exploration on the social and economic features of globalisation and the way in which they are influencing the structure of scientific communities in the developing countries (DCs). Since the educational system is a foundational base for the formation of national scientific communities and an important source of skills for the economy, we will also be concerned with the domain of education. Considering that DCs in the 1990s "no more sail in the same boat" as they did during the decade of 1970s, much of what follows in this essay should be rather more relevant to the middle and lower income countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America rather than the East Asian Dragons. We will however use them as relevant examples as and where necessary.
The major impact of new economic reforms on the national systems of innovation in DCs, particularly scientific communities engaged in research and development (R&D) institutions, has been through the lifting of protective measures for the import of technology across a range of items in the manufacturing sector to which the research system was geared before the introduction of liberal policies. Export orientation, the Intellectual Property Regime and GATT have directly or indirectly injected a market oriented goal direction in scientific research. In this shortened version of my essay, two main issues are considered namely: (a) In what ways globalisation is influencing the scientific research system? and (b) What are the important implications for the developing countries like India?
Globalisation and the Changing Structure of Science
The social and economic impact of the present phase of globalisation is not something that is just influencing the economic context of science and technology. Unlike in earlier phases, it has brought about a new economic framework which is set to radically transform the social institution of science and the research system as a whole. The advancement of systematic knowledge, prominence attached to open publications to claim priority, high premium placed on professional rewards and constitution of reference groups from the discipline based scientific elite which remained the hallmark of academic science and which governed the scientific communities in the post-war era is undergoing a change. In other words, the traditional "ethos of science" à la Mertonian social system of science is becoming less and less important in the face of the emerging situation. As Ziman recently spelled out "academic science is undergoing a Cultural Revolution. It is giving way to post-academic science, which may be so different sociologically and philosophically that it will produce a different type of knowledge" (1996:752). In a similar vein, science policy experts have drawn our attention to a new mode of production of knowledge which is qualitatively different from the discipline-based academic science and the earlier social institution of science which dominated our thinking in the post-war era. Some of the main features are as follows:
Wealth from Knowledge:
The linear innovation model which was based on the academic pure science, and which governed the science policies and research orientations of scientific communities in the developing world had lost its eminence. There is a basic change in the orientation of scientific communities from the one based on "advancing knowledge" to "creation of wealth" and this is an important "ideological shift." There is also a corresponding shift of emphasis from "basic research" to "technological innovation." In the last decade much of this new inspiration is spreading across the rest of the developing world from the experiences of East Asia. Also, when it comes to selecting research problems, one can see a shift in the goal direction of research which is increasingly deemed as an investment factor. The notions of value addition, profit, efficiency etc, have assumed greater significance. Since the ideal of advancing knowledge is slowly but steadily being enveloped by the pragmatic value of creation of wealth, there is a pressure for withholding critical elements of knowledge production from open publications. In the current phase of globalisation, international regimes such as Intellectual Property Rights under GATT and bio-diversity and the penetration of MNEs in the DCs are catalysing this shift in the orientation of scientific communities (see Safadi and Laird 1996). Given the emerging culture of intellectual property rights and creation of wealth from knowledge, the norm of secrecy is no more a taboo and this will withhold new knowledge from public for a certain period of time depending on the contextual situation of establishing priorities in the commercialisation of knowledge.
Withering Boundaries and Hybrid Communities:
The ongoing penetration of commercial and industrial interests into academic and non-academic research settings has not only resulted in the loss of autonomy but catalysed the dismantling of conventional "cultural boundaries" between different work settings. This development has enabled different work cultures, styles of research, behaviours and goal orientations to coexist not necessarily in a single physical environment but on a single research programme dispersed across a wide range of organisations in a networking mode of interaction and work. The "dual commitment" of practitioners to the goals of multidisciplinary based research programmes is clearly visible as a new development. These multidisciplinary based research programmes had led to what may be called "hybrid communities," wherein there is a common commitment and sharing of goals which often relate to results which are meaningful from different perspectives ranging from market, trade, technology to science.
Incorporating Interests, Accountability and Reward Structure:
The loss of research autonomy is not unrelated to the incorporation of various external interests by the scientific communities in their research programmes coming from the government, industry, political parties, various social groups and movements. The globalisation has catalysed the influence of industrial and trade communities in the science and related interest groups and their technology (S&T) decision making systems at the top level of government which was earlier dominated by elite scientists and technocrats. The increasing manifestation of these interests, among other aspects, is at the heart of transforming the social institution of science. One important consequence of this is that the scientists are subjected to scrutiny by and accountability to a number of interests groups including their scientific peers. The number of open publications is likely to witness a gradual decline in the coming years due to increasing trends of consultancy and sponsorship based research programmes in the academic and non-academic research settings. Full time research and academic institutions are beginning to open up and revise the existing reward structures to commensurate with the changing manifestations of social and market interests. Liberal economic policies under globalisation which led to the expansion of a private sector in education and high and new technology areas have fostered "two cultures" of "private science" and "public science" with distinct work cultures, salary levels, incentives and other perks which have created institutional and management problems for research institutions.
Management of R&D and Entrepreneurial mode:
The realisation that research and development (R&D) is an important but only one element amongst other institutional, organisational and non-R&D related technical factors (designing, soft ware etc.) in the success of innovation has led to several changes in the management of science agencies.
In the academic sector, universities in the developing countries are undergoing a transformation to mainly incorporate an entrepreneurial mode of work and culture. Universities are experiencing sever budget cuts from the public purse and are compelled to seek industrial and private corporate funding and participation. Different manifestations of this new trend are discernible from promoting industrial and private consultancy, corporate industrial investment and bringing universities closer to the industrial needs and demands and to the creation of new firms by the professionals both from the university and non-academic research laboratories. We can now speak of a new "community" called "professional entrepreneurs" in the DCs who have opened up companies and firms mainly in new and high technologies such as software, computing and information technologies, telecommunications, biotechnology, horticulture and floriculture etc.
Implications for DCs
Globalisation has already induced several changes in the national systems of innovation in the DCs. As indicated earlier, there are many facets of the impact of globalisation which are gradually redefining the nature and scope of the institution of science and hence the role of scientific communities. What is the future of basic research? What are the justifications for the relevance of national scientific communities in the context of globalism? What institutional strategies should DCs follow in revamping their educational structures? And how should these countries respond to the ongoing challenges? We will briefly explore some of the important questions.
Strengthening Scientific Communities:
Many developing countries in Africa, South Asia and Latin America are still struggling to establish viable scientific communities. While the last decade witnessed relative stagnation of budgets for science in Latin America and South Asia, the foreign dependence of R&D increased to the extent of 60 to 70% in the case of several African countries particularly in the Sub-Saharan region. In addition to pumping in more money for creating universities and establishing scientific institutions, there is a need to instill a sense of purpose and legitimacy for science and at the same time create intellectual structures to professionalise these communities. Our research undertaken so far reveals that there is no shortcut to surmount the exploitation of science and technology for the benefit of social and economic progress other than promoting national scientific communities in some crucial areas of science depending on the national contexts. In the present context of globalisation, only those countries are able to absorb the shocks of economic globalism and derive benefits from the international flows of knowledge which have so far established national scientific communities and educational structures (see Gaillard, Krishna and Waast 1997). The forces of globalisation will increasingly undermine the relevance of the local research base if it is not geared to a high level of professional standards because, in varying forms, this is directly related to the ability to compete in the high and new technology areas. This is particularly the case in agriculture and the chemical sciences and in biotechnology. It is not just the number of S&T personnel, finances and laboratories which define the scientific communities and their professional standards. The ability to institutionalise scientific disciplines and new fields of research; a system of recreating neophytes: intellectual climate through informal networking, journals, scientific societies and academies, and socio-political legitimacy in the society are some of the defining features. Under the changed situation even though the scientific communities will increasingly lose their autonomy and are subjected to incorporate various interests, they will continue to play a significant part in the economic progress of DCs. Closely related to the promotion of scientific communities is the issue of re-examining basic research.
Re-examining the Role of Basic Research:
There is a need to seriously distinguish between the academic basic research which is of "pure or fundamental" type, and basic research which is "oriented" and "strategic" from the point of social or economic goals and which finds relevance in the context of DCs. Notwithstanding this important distinction, there is a body of opinion, both in the advanced as well as in the developing countries, that basic research has no immediate relevance to the prevailing problems in the DCs; and what these countries need to do is to focus on building local and national technological capacities and capabilities. While such capabilities are indispensable, DCs are unlikely to attain them without generating a corresponding base in basic research. Such a view gains prominence from the present changing situation when there is evidence of the blurring of science technology distinction, on one hand, and increasing orientation of "hybrid" groups and programmes which are more meaningful from an interdisciplinary perspective, on the other.
First of all, the governments in the DCs must continue to fund basic research which is of oriented and strategic nature because, in our opinion, the ability and capacity to undertake basic research entails various benefits in the mold of "public good." There is a rationale that the state must shoulder this responsibility in the interest of the public because private firms and agencies tend to underinvest in basic research given its open publication nature of "codified knowledge." It may be noted that basic research is being advocated as an important component, among other elements, in the concept of innovation.
One may draw attention to the importance of "tacit" knowledge and skills in contradistinction to "codified" knowledge which gets manifested in the written published literature. Our research undertaken so far indicates that graduates and researchers trained in basic research often embody novel and useful skills and knowledge which are not amenable to be transferred through written or coded information channels. In effect, these tacit skills and knowledge are person embodied and are learnt through research training in laboratories and universities and hence reside within the minds of individual persons and are mastered through periods of sustained training in the moulds of "learning by doing" and "learning by interaction." It is argued that basic research is the main source of such tacit skills and knowledge which are crucial for developing technical capabilities in a range of new and high technologies. The importance of tacit knowledge as stated here holds good and relevant for technological knowledge also. Closely related are the elements such as doctoral training, socialisation into science and for developing "identities" and self-concept in the world of science and research, which are, important for many developing countries on the threshold of establishing scientific communities. Basic research in the universities had always played an important part in these activities.
Rosenberg (1992) and Price (1984) whose writings have inspired a generation of science policy scholars over the years have stressed the importance of basic research as the major source of important methodologies and new instrumentation. Rosenberg (ibid) in his influential paper had given numerous examples such as X-ray diffraction pictures, X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance, ion implantation techniques in semiconductor industry, among other techniques and instruments, to demonstrate the importance of basic research for generating industrial and technological capabilities and hence economic benefits not in the distant past. By drawing on the writings of these scholars our intention is not to advocate "science for its own sake" across DCs. But where ever (in countries such as India, China, Brazil, Argentina, South Africa, Thailand etc) basic research is undertaken in considerable proportion and where ever a long historical tradition of university academic research exists, these countries must continue to strengthen their basic research base because it is most likely to be one of the main sources of new methodologies and instrumentation.
Another way in which the inputs of basic research are crucial for the success of innovation is their ability to technological problem solving across a range of sectors including agriculture and biological sciences and as a source for the creation of firms. In so far as demonstrating the link between basic research and the creation of firms or enterprises including the new ones, there is now substantial evidence in the new technologies. The importance of tacit knowledge and its linkage to the creation of enterprises and firms by basic research scientists and engineering personnel cannot be taken lightly. It is our view that basic research should be seen from a broader perspective; and thus the changing production systems call for a re-examination by systematic analysis of the meaning of basic research (of oriented and strategic type) and the ways and means by which it could be harnessed to meet the technological challenges thrown up by globalisation.
Need for Networking Strategies:
There is a growing consensus of the fact that innovation is the result of a coupling between science and technology components on one hand and market on the other (See Callon et al. 1991). Given the lack of appropriate economic structures which could organically generate such linkages, the state needs to intervene and mediate to induce linkages between the full time laboratories, universities, industry and the market. As we have argued elsewhere (see Krishna 1994), science and technology policy mechanisms should be structured in such a way as to create networking programmes at the meso or science agency level targeted to specific result oriented tasks. Different interest groups from market to university will be partners with financial stakes, and the state could underwrite the risks, if any, in the initial stages. This would also, in some crucial programmes, entail reorganisation of scientific communities in terms of "hybrid" groups and research programmes. However, we do not intend to mean that all research in DCs must take the networking form, as this will depend on the contextual situation. Such networking strategies in research in DCs could play a major part in responding to the ongoing market challenges. There are other examples in East Asia, U.S. and Western Europe. In our country we have examples from the works of P.C. Ray who initiated supposedly the first university-industry connection at the turn of the present Century when he created Begal Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals. S.S. Bhatnagar, founder of CSIR in fact drew the attention of the colonial government after he successfully fostered the university-industry relationship at Chemical Laboratories at the Punjab University in Lahore.
Skill and Educational Implications:
There are three aspects which we wish to stress here. Firstly, there is a double bind challenge for the DCs to increase the primary, secondary and tertiary education comparable to the levels attained by the industrialised and newly industrialising countries, on one hand, and simultaneously "catch up" up with the pace of industrialisation and modernisation, on the other hand.
Secondly, cheap labour and natural resource endowments are unlikely to determine the comparative advantages in the present globalised world. These advantages will be determined by the abilities of value addition through technology and knowledge in the manufacturing processes and this will increasingly depend on varied types of skills based on specific knowledge and use of information techniques. Compared to relative efforts placed on training university graduates and other professionals, DCs produce a very low proportion and low levels of skilled technicians. The organisation of production systems in the DCs calls for new institutional innovations, both at the production end and from the side of post-secondary and vocational education. They must aim at forging new organisational forms which will bring scientists, technologists, artisans and technicians together for training and recreation. As the factors of flexibility and decentralisation are gaining prominence in the production systems, these new organisational forms should become sensitive to these changing industrial structures. It is here that the academic and non-academic research institutions need to intervene in a networking mode to aid the rural and small-scale based industrial enterprises to foster what may be called "regional systems of innovation" in the DCs.
Thirdly, science education (not referring to engineering and medicine) at the post-secondary school level is facing severe crises in many DCs. Science is becoming less and less prominent in the "self-concept" and orientations of young students who are motivated much more towards economics, business administration, commerce, computing software, etc. Rather than eminent scientists, personalities such as Bill Gates are the new "role models" for children. Tremendous growth of new industries in the private sector such as tourism, travel, hotel and catering, real estate, fashion design and in a range of other sectors have placed increasing demands on the management sciences including marketing and financing. Science as an attractive and highly valued profession is losing its "shine" in the eyes of students. There is need to seriously examine this situation including rapid loss of good science and math teachers.
Science as Public Good vs Science as Market Good, New Tension:
These two conceptions of science are based on two different logics - that of disclosure, open knowledge and thus free circulation of information; and that of intellectual property and knowledge as private property and thus retention of information (see Dasgupta and David 1994). In the ongoing process of globalisation the conception of science as market good has come into operation in the developing countries. This new conception of science has challenged the prevailing mode of science as public good. This is indeed a serious problem in DCs like India where over 80% of R&D is funded from the public sources. While the operating mechanisms of market driven commercial interests of "private science" are increasingly applied to regulate research in publicly funded science agencies there are clear signs of cutting down research expenditures in welfare, education, health, and risk related and other small scale sector research which enjoys considerable legitimacy under the ideal of "science as a public good." Developing countries are getting increasingly entangled in a double bind situation in responding to the market forces under globalisation, on one hand and sustain research activities directed to public good, on the other.
Rejection of the view of science as public good in favour of market oriented science is likely to have dangerous consequences for the DCs. If the East Asian experience is any relevance then the message is very clear. The state must shoulder a major responsibility and intervene to balance between two sets of policies for sustaining science as public good until the society is able to absorb the shocks generated by market forces.
Traditional and Indigenous Knowledge Systems:
Traditional and Indigenous knowledge systems have sustained and continue to sustain the life patterns of millions of people (in agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing, health and medicine, environment for example) in the developing world. These knowledge systems form an integral part of our civilisation. The "hegemony" of modern scientific and technological systems, in its varying forms, has recurrently aborted the growth potential of these knowledge systems. Several important research studies and research programmes on these systems in India and elsewhere have drawn attention to their functional relevance and tremendous economic potential even today for sustenance of peoples lives in our societies. What has come to be realised recently is the fact that these systems, which are intimately related to different worldviews, are also ecologically sustainable. A time has come when we need to systematically rediscover the potentialities of these systems as a major factor in socio-economic growth models. In what ways and means the modern scientific and technological systems interact with these systems? Can we "blend" these systems for the benefit of people? In what ways we can institutionalise the concept of scientific and technological pluralism? These are some of the issues which deserve considerable attention in the developing world. In any case, there is an urgent need to economically protect the communities who are knowledge holders of these systems from the current "hegemony" and "systems of appropriation" of global regimes, on one hand, and modern biological systems, on the other.
Callon, M., P.Laredo and V.Rabeharisoa. (1991), The Management and Evaluation of Technological Programs and the Dynamics of Techno-Economic Networks: The Case of AFME, Mimeo, Paris: CSI, Ecole des Mines.
Dasgupta, P. and P.David (1994), Towards a New Economics of Science, Research Policy, 23, pp. 487-521.
Gaillard, J., V.V.Krishna and R.Waast (1997) The Scientific Communities in the Developing World, New Delhi : Sage Publications.
Gibbons, M., C. Limoges, H. Nowotny, S.Schwartzman, P. Scott and M. Trow (1994), The New Production of Knowledge - The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies, Great Britain: Sage Publications.
Krishna, V.V. (1994), Science Policies to Innovation Strategies: Local Networking and Coping with Internationalism in the Developing Country Context, Knowledge and Policy, 6 (3-4), pp. 134-157.
Price, D. de Solla (1984), The Science/Technology Relationship, the Craft of Experimental Science and Policy for the Improvement of High Technology Innovation, Research Policy, 13, pp. 3-20.
Rosenberg, N. (1992), Scientific Instrumentation and University Research, Research Policy, 21, pp. 381-390.
Safadi, R and S. Laird. (1996), The Uruguay Round Agreements: Impact on Developing Countries, World Development, 24 (7), pp. 1223-1242.
Ziman, J. (1996), Is Science Losing its Objectivity?, Nature 382, 29 August, pp. 751-754.
International Peace Bureau (IPB) Statement on Kosovo
PEACE MOVEMENTS OPPOSE BOTH ETHNIC CLEANSING AND BOMBING
Geneva, April 8, 1999.
The International Peace Bureau representing 186 citizens peace organisations worldwide is appalled and sickened by the recent events in Kosovo. We utterly condemn the Serbian policies of discrimination, ethnic "cleansing," massacre and terror against the Kosovars. At the same time we believe NATOs airstrikes have so far done nothing but accelerate the repression, unite the Serbian nation around Milosevic, and alienate the Russians and others in the region.
Belgrades ceasefire offer, no matter how cynical, did present an opportunity to de-escalate the crisis. NATOs abrupt refusal slams shut the door to an early resolution.
PREVENTION LOST OPPORTUNITIES
We are saddened that the West refused the challenge of creating a partnership with Russia at Rambouillet and turned its back on patient, non-violent strategies. This is in stark contrast to the negotiations on Northern Ireland, for example, where Tony Blair repeatedly argues that "You cant bomb your way to the conference table."
If for the past 8 years the West had supported effectively the nonviolent response of the Kosovo Albanians led by Ibrahim Rogova; if Milosevic had been indicted at the Hague Tribunal as a war criminal; if Kosovo had been included in the Dayton peace agreement; if serious attempts had been made to counter the Serb media propaganda machine; if more skilled mediators with different negotiation styles had been used; if full support and financing had been offered to the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE); then there might not have been an armed struggle, and we might not be facing todays horrendous mess.
Few outside NATO HQ dispute that there is no UN endorsement for its unlicensed attacks against a sovereign state. NATO has usurped the authority both of the UN and of the OSCE, violated Article 2.4 of the UN Charter, as well as NATOs own Charter, and contravened both the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties and the Helsinki Final Act. The intervention of a supposedly defensive regional organisation sets a new and dangerous precedent for other military groupings to take lawless action anywhere in the world. This is a major challenge for the UN, its Secretariat and agencies, and its supporters. Civil society must defend the one global organisation capable of addressing global problems.
It may be true that there is a new, evolving legal / moral norm implying a duty of humanitarian intervention to protect vulnerable civilians. It is clear that many around the world feel that there was no choice but to resort to military force in order to avoid another Srebrenica-style massacre. However, given its highly controversial nature, we believe this option should have been tested in UN forums rather than unilaterally. The use of German forces in the attacks is particularly insensitive, given the suffering the Serbs endured at the hands of both Nazis and Ustashe.
US commentators point out that the bombing and its aftermath could have grave consequences in terms of reinforcement of the US military buildup and proof of the two simultaneous regional wars doctrine. Furthermore, it will re-militarize the American people, many of whom see unilateral force as the only way to deal with internal and international disputes or humanitarian crises. US policy towards the Balkans has been contradictory at best supporting democracy and negotiation and then abandoning such methods. In particular, the military action has effectively pulled the rug from under the democratic representatives of the Kosovo Albanians and instead given support to the unconstitutional Kosovo Liberation Army, with the effect that NATO is now acting as its air force.
NATOs 50th ANNIVERSARY AND THE OSCE
IPB has campaigned against the expansion of NATO on the grounds that it is both unnecessary and destabilising, given the fierce opposition in Russia. We have long urged that support and financing be transferred to the pan-European OSCE. It was a tragic mistake not to have invested in and mobilised a far larger OSCE monitoring team in Kosovo; and we doubt the wisdom of withdrawing those that were present just at the crucial moment. As in Rwanda, the withdrawal of the international community representatives may come to be seen as the fatal signal for all-out assault on civilians.
Can it be a coincidence that this latest NATO action almost coincides with the 50th anniversary review of NATOs Strategic Concept? For months NATO spokespersons have been advocating a new approach, including taking action across state borders for "humanitarian" reasons. The way this action has been taken raises serious questions of accountability and legality. It must not be seen as a precedent for future NATO policies. The long term structure for resolving such problems in the future is surely the Charter for a cooperative security structure in Europe to be adopted by the OSCE Summit in November 1999 in Istanbul.
We utterly condemn the hypocrisy of the most powerful NATO states, which have opted for military strikes over Kosovo and yet have failed to muster an equivalent UN-led response to situations of even greater suffering and oppression, eg Kurdistan, Sri Lanka, or Ethiopia-Eritrea, where so far over 45,000 have died and no end to the killing is in sight.
A BOOST FOR THE ARMS INDUSTRY
The military mobilization has brought the US arms industry a sudden boost in orders, and is likely to strengthen their hand in arguing for additional Pentagon subsidies. The Clinton administration has already increased military spending this year and the conflict of course provides an ideal environment for testing the latest hi-tech equipment. Such developments are extremely negative from the perspective of reducing arms production, sales and exports, since they reinforce the militarisation of Western economies which should have been reversed at the end of the Cold War.
IPB is especially concerned at reports that NATO has been using depleted uranium in its attacks on Serbian targets, both with its A10 attack aircraft and Tomahawk Cruise missiles. DU is pyrophoric, bursting into an intensified flameup that releases micron-sized aerosol particles that can be ingested by military personnel or civilians. NATO is risking prolonged contamination of the environment, putting at risk innocent civilians, especially children, now in the Balkans as well as Iraq. DU has been condemned by the UN Commission on Human Rights, at its Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. The Commission requested that the Secretary-General prepare a written report on DU and certain other weapons of mass destruction (Resolution 1997/36). We believe this weaponry is being tested with complete lack of concern for its effects.
REFUGEE / HUMANITARIAN CRISIS
The massive flows of refugees fleeing Kosovo threaten the stability of the whole region. It is extraordinary that NATO planners who condemned Milosevic as capable of almost any evil failed to predict or prepare for the exodus of hundreds of thousands into Macedonia, Albania and Montenegro. None of these countries can in the short-term cope with such numbers, and before long could suffer severe social and political consequences. Macedonia especially is likely to experience an upsurge in nationalist sentiment, which could bring war to another region. We urge Western governments to accelerate their relief programmes and to provide similar levels of funding to those which are being lavished on the war effort. It is shameful that the US, UK and France, most willing to bomb, seem least willing to accept large numbers of refugees on their soil. We believe a worldwide UN appeal should also be launched for financial contributions, materials and volunteers, both short and long-term.
RETURN THE RESPONSIBILITY TO THE U.N.
IPB demands that the focus of attempts to resolve the crisis must shift back to the UN. Given the impasse in the Security Council, the Secretary-General should ask the Security Council to request an immediate emergency session of the General Assembly (UN Charter Articles 12 and 14).
We urge that such a session should pass a resolution calling for:
URGENT MEASURES, CREATIVE THINKING AND THE LONG TERM
IPB believes this crisis is a profound and complex challenge for all those who wish both to see human rights respected and peaceful ways found to resolve bitter conflicts. The immediate challenge is how to ensure that the Kosovar refugees can return in safety to their homes. The use of NATO ground troops at this stage would likely lead to terrible bloodshed. Possibly the intervention of Kofi Annan or Nobel laureates such as Nelson Mandela or Shimon Peres could provide a new opportunity. But more pressure will be needed to persuade all the governments involved to change tack before further killing and mass evictions take place.
The first casualty of this war, as in so many others, has been objective reporting and the circulation of information not controlled by either the propaganda machine of Milosevic or the news packaging of NATO is essential for clear assessment of the situation. Meanwhile, peace, human rights and other humanitarian movements need to engage in an intensive process of creative thinking to explore all the dimensions and options for a peaceful and lasting transformation of the crisis. These will include global measures such as the rapid establishment of the International Criminal Court and the prosecution of those guilty of war crimes; a Global Code of Conduct on arms transfers and other measures to restrict the availability of weapons, both large and small; strengthening the resources and prestige of the OSCE and other regional structures; substantial investment in peace education and conflict resolution training; and much more besides. It is a long road ahead.
From: (Mr) Colin Archer, Secretary-General International Peace Bureau,
41 rue de Zurich, 1201 Geneva, Switzerland.
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A LETTER FROM SERBIA
This is the first time that I am not addressing you just as a member of INES, but also as an anti-nuclear movements activist and a signatory of all the significant appeals of these movements, as a co-establisher of the Greens branch in Nuremberg, as a president of the Committee of NZS in Belgrade and the honorary president of the Ecological Party in Tirana, as a member of The Movement for Peace of the Muslims and Serbs, the participant of the "German - Serbian - Muslim - Croat Dialogue in Munich," the co-organizer of the first Caravan of Peace of the Greens in Kosovo and in the end, as a mother of a child born in a mixed marriage. I am doing this only because I want to point out the depth of my wish and need for co-operation, agreement among peoples of different nations and faiths, and the mutual planning of their future.
There is no time to begin this appeal with a discussion on the causes and mechanisms of the outbreak of this crisis, about the unknowing diplomatic interventions, about the lack of will for peace both in my country and your countries, which brought about the destruction of a significant multi-ethnic country in Europe, the former Yugoslavia. I will only shortly note that the clash in Kosovo and Metohija is just a phase of this dishonouring work, in which no one wishes to begin responsible talks; only that would show transparency in the mechanism of the clashes aggravation and make the conditions for its deaggravation and responsible dialogue.
I directly urge you to do everything to stop the NATO intervention against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, because it will not bring peace and because now it has already brought about the ethnic cleansing in Kosovo not only aimed at Albanians, but at Serbs as well. At the end of all aggressions, there is peace. I am afraid that NATO diplomacy is making a prerequisite for long-lasting hatred and lack of confidence which will disable all future discussion between the Serbs, Albanians and other national communities about the political solutions in the limits of existing European documents.
I wish to point out a special side-effect of the bombing of which little has been said: the actions of NATO Pact are so wide, that in the first phase they can already be characterised as absolute war which means the destruction preconceptions cultural, spiritual and natural lives of millions of people of all nations in our country.
The toxic nature of the 19,200 tons of explosives (equal to the amount used in the Nagasaki bombing) used is well known to you we warn you that Serbia is one of the greatest sources of underground waters in Europe and that the contamination will be felt in the whole surrounding area all the way to the Black Sea. NATO Pact is bombing factories; the workers in the greater part of our great industrial complexes have decided to make a "living wall" around their working places, they are not doing this because they are only defending their country, but also because they have become so impoverished by the years of sanctions, that the destruction of factories would mean the condemnation to the unequalled poverty equal to execution. Such poverty will soon cause the long lasting crisis in this area, and will become the center of potential terrorism.
NATO chooses the targets in the vicinity of the extremely dangerous machinery. On the very first day, the municipality of Grocka has been hit on the territory of which the nuclear reactor Vinca is situated, containing a great storage of nuclear waste; the municipality of Pancevo has been hit, on which the petrol-chemical factory and the factory for the artificial fertilizers are situated; the municipality of Baric has also been hit with the great complex for the production of chloride, which is using Bopal technology. It is not necessary for me to explain what the blowing up of one of such factories would represent. Not only Belgrade which is situated at a 10 km distance, would be endangered, but the rest of Europe too. On the second day, in the Belgrade suburb of Sremcica a factory for the chemical production and a rocket fuel storage was hit causing a milder intoxication of the surrounding area.
I am pointing out that four national parks were hit all members of the International association of the national reservations you have to realise that FR Yugoslavia is among thirteen of the worlds richest bio-diversity countries. On the third day, the Avala area was aimed at, where the psychiatric division of the neuro-psychiatric clinic of Belgrade is situated. The Yugoslav Cinematheque was also put in danger one of the richest film archives in the world, listed among the world cultural heritage. The village of Gracanica was also shelled: there is situated one of the most important monasteries of the medieval orthodox culture and the candidate for the UNESCO heritage list. Numerous civil targets in other cities were hit schools, hospitals, and sites considered as cultural monuments&
Especially worrying are the latest news saying that, in the next phases of their bombing, NATO will use the airplanes B1 and A10 which are carrying missiles with depleted uranium previously used in Iraq and Bosnia Herzegovina. The use of these will bring about the vast dangerous consequences to the health not only of the soldiers, but also of the whole population, and you know that the toxins and the radioactivity know no nationality or borders.
Of course, it is not necessary for me to point out the shocks that children and old people unable to hide in shelters are experiencing, the worsening of the situation in the hospitals& If the aim of this intervention was the prevention of the humanitarian catastrophe, its result will be a far greater humanitarian catastrophe with far more severe consequences to the generations of people living in this country.
I am deeply convinced that I am speaking in the name of all the citizens of Yugoslavia when I say that we have the capabilities and the political will to find a solution for the Kosovo and Metohija problem, if we are allowed to seek this solution together with the Albanians, and if we take into consideration the fact that all of us have the right to participate in this solution. All one-sidedness and media manipulation are a part of the mechanism bringing suffering, destruction and death.
Branka Jovanovic, 30 March 1999
Statement by André Jaeglé
President of the World Federation of Scientific Workers,
at the Congress of the National Union of Scientific Researchers (SNCS),
Meudon, France, 25 March 1999
Military air raids over the territory of former Yugoslavia started some 24 hours ago. In the scientific world community, as well as in the political world and in public opinion, the most diverging and opposed points of view are being expressed as to the origins of the present situation, the responsibilities, the lasting solutions and even more so as to the path to follow to implement these solutions.
The Word Federation of Scientific Workers has affiliated organisations and corresponding members in the United States, in several NATO member States, in Russia, China and Japan, in countries where the Islam is the official religion, in secular countries where a specific religion may, or may not be dominant, in countries where human rights are treated in various manners that is a euphemism.
The WFSW would not exist, would not even have a cause to exist, if it did not categorically condemn the fact that such military action was launched in violation of the international agreements that are the basis of the United Nations system, which exclusively authorises the Security Council to take this type of decision. Personally, I fear that the consequences of this violation will be felt, not only beyond the settlement of the legitimate demands concerning Kosovo, but also in a much more serious way. Whatever may be the shortcomings of the United Nations, destroying it gradually will not brighten the horizon of sustainable development, nor contribute anything to a peace culture.
Nevertheless, the scientific community is once again called upon to play the role that it had for a long time during the cold war, that is to be the link, sometimes almost the only link, that makes a dialogue possible between countries in opposed camps or blocks. It is particularly important, in such a delicate, alarming period, so favourable to affective and excessive behaviour (understandable and even normal, after all we are human beings, not machines, although it is mainly machines currently bombing former Yugoslavia), that we continue to listen, not to justify or excuse, but to know and to create new bases for dialogue.
I happened to visit Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia, present components of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in January 1998, a few weeks before armed action resumed in Kosovo. I was the guest of our affiliated organisation, SITJ (an organisation for technicians and engineers), the Association of University Teachers and Researchers and the Serbian Philosophical Society.
During dozens of meetings, I heard many things which, let us say, proved in advance those to be right who now state that military action by NATO would only result in exacerbating the nationalism orchestrated by President Milosevic.
For my part, I took a public stand against the embargo, decided it is true in that case by the United Nations and denounced firmly the extension of this embargo to pharmaceutical products and scientific co-operation. I do not see how we could help Serbian scientists play a positive role in finding a political solution of the crisis, if we refrain even from meeting them or associating them in scientific projects.
I refuse to see scientists left by the wayside, whoever they may be or wherever they may live.
NAPF CALLS NEW DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS
AND AN END TO NATO AIR STRIKES
The Nuclear Age Peace Foundation (NAPF) calls for an immediate end to NATO air strikes and new diplomatic efforts involving all interested parties. Simultaneously, we call upon the government of Yugoslavia to cease its policy of violence and repression against ethnic Albanian Kosovars and to repatriate Albanian refugees, providing them full human and political rights.
The resolution of the crisis in Kosovo should be turned over immediately to the UN Security Council. NATO should focus its further actions on contributing to the relief effort in the countries receiving Kosovo's refugees.
Santa Barbara, CA, April 12, 1999
For more information contact David Krieger, .
R ---------- Wissenschaft und Forschung in sozialer und ökologischer Verantwortung
Perspectives of European
Science and Research Policy
Cologne, 4 June 1999, 11.00 - 19.00 h
Kolpinghaus, St. Apern-Straße 32, 50667 Köln
n Dortmunder Kreis, science and technology with respect to social and ecological responsibility;
n International Network of Engineers and Scientists for Global Responsibility (INES);
n the International Federation of Commercial, Clerical, Professional and Technical Personnel (FIET);
Science and technology have a formative function for the arrangement and the further development of social structures as well as for the further development of culture and civilization.
In view of the increasing importance of European science and research policy, also in the national scientific and research policy field, the organizers invite to the work conference "European perspectives of science and research policy." The main purpose of this conference should be the exchange of information of different countries, from the perspectives of non-government organizations, unions and critical scientists. Within the scope of an analysis or a balance of the European research and technology policy respectively, we intend to discuss chances and alternatives for political possibilities of influence and arrangement. Manifold questions suggest themselves. We mention them in this context, without the claim of being complete and without the possibility of handling them in full on the occasion of this conference:
Special attention will be paid to a continued cooperation and to networking organizations and initiatives that are involved in the fields of science, research and technology. This conference should set an impetus to cooperation and networking on the level of policy of non-government organizations and of all whom are really concerned.
The official conference language is English.
11.00 h Opening words from the Ministry for Science and Education, Dr. Hansvolker Ziegler " Views of the "Dortmunder Kreis" on this conference and suggestions for an European networking, Reiner Braun, INES.
12.00 h Central ideas of European science and research policy, Bernd Lange, MDEP, European parliament member and chair of the committee of research, technology, development and energy.
15.30 h Exchange of information. Ideas and concepts, programmatic considerations and projects from different countries and from different initiatives will be presented. Experience reports that reflect problems of single countries and are of European importance, will be discussed. Also questions of dual use, military research and development policy, union view of European research and development policy, future ability as a possibly disputed leitmotif are to be considered. At the end of this bloc a report will be given by Ana Maria Cetto about the world conference of UNESCO, that is also devoted to this subject. This conference will be a meeting point for governments and non-governmental organizations.
17.45 h In a final circle further models of cooperation will be discussed. Convener: Gerd Rhode, FIET.
19.00 h Get-together
For those who are interested, a Rhine steamship trip is offered on 5 June 1999.
A word from the editor
When this issue of the Newsletter appears, the Kosovo war has been lasting for weeks. Maybe the hostilities have ended by that time. But immense problems remain. We all feel that this terrible fight has thrown us back into a state of barbarity which we believed to have overcome earlier in this century. The Kosovo war changes our expectations of peace and humanity, it changes the rules of International Law, it will change the political constitution in several of our countries, it will change society. In the spirit of Global Responsibility, INES will have to act.
There are four contributions about Kosovo in this issue. The first is the statement of the International Peace Bureau, of which INES is a member. Then there is a reaction from an INES member from Serbia, showing the agony of peace activists in the war region, and two from member organizations of INES.
In future, when hopefully the gunpowder has settled down, we will bring more contributions that should provide us with a balanced look on the newly arisen situation and on the future action to be taken.
The present issue of the Newsletter not only reflects the horrors of war. We live in an age in which the power of governments is decaying, and where an upsurge of non-governmental activity tries to find a place in decision making. A prominent example is the "Hague Appeal for Peace Conference" which is held in this month in The Hague, The Netherlands. There, non-governmental organizations try to take up the thread of peace which could not be held up by the governments and which was rudely broken early in this century. This conference should be associated with other non-governmental activities, and be followed up by conferences and meetings that disseminate and further develop the ideas of peace and humanity. In this issue of the Newsletter you find the program of the Petersburg conference "Nuclear Policy and Security in the 21st Century" which immediately acts along this line.
Also in this issue is the first announcement of the INES conference "Challenges for Science and Engineering in the 21st Century" in Stockholm next year. With a strong theme area "Steps towards war prevention and lasting peace," it immediately is a successor of the Hague Appeal event. It will also follow the UNESCO "World Conference on Science," in Budapest, where non-governmental organizations will meet government delegations. Also preceding the INES 2000 Conference are the "Second Interdisciplinary Conference on the Evolution of World Order (WOC)" in Toronto, and the meeting of the Dortmunder Kreis in Cologne, as announced in this Newsletter issue.
Several contributions in this Newsletter are preparations of the INES conference. The leading paper of V.V. Krishna addresses a key issue of this conference, the prospects of scientific research and education in the present era and in the future. The paper of Ruben Apressyan refers to ethics, which is a central theme of the conference and the call from the International Society on Optics within Life Sciences also refers to items on the INES 2000 agenda.
I hope to see you all in Stockholm!
Armin Tenner, Amsterdam
REGIONAL INES CONTACTS
INES as a network relies on healthy nodes. Readers are encouraged to approach the INES contact person in their region. Please raise any question you have.
International Society on Optics Within Life Sciences (OWLS)
Improvement in the living conditions of man and the protection of nature have become global challenges. Scientific and technological progress yields new opportunities and achievements, but can also result in adverse consequences for the environment when used without social responsibility. Technological developments in optics provide a powerful means for solving problems in medical, biological, environmental, and cultural heritage areas. The application of these new methods requires the collaboration of scientists and engineers in optics and specialists in medicine, biology, environmental sciences, and cultural heritage. A wide range of interactions between universities, research institutes and industry is necessary.
To serve this unique need, the International Society on Optics Within Life Sciences (OWLS) was founded on August 13, 1990, as a non-profit organization based on individual membership.
At present, there are about 500 members from 36 countries. Based on this international consortium, the society can offer access to this community of specialists to societies, associations, study groups, international and national bodies, or companies which are interested in this field.
Legal bodies are the Board of Directors, the Regional Council, and the Member Assembly. The following Standing Committees were established to support and advise the Board of Directors: The Standing Committee on Bylaws and Regulatory Statutes; the Standing Committee on Finances; the Standing Committee on Technology Transfer, the Standing Committee on Education and Ethics, and the Standardization and Technology Assessment.
In order to serve interdisciplinary communication on a worldwide scale, the society holds a biennial International Conference on Optics Within Life Sciences.
The society has NGO status at the UN and has sent delegates to major UN conferences (e.g. Rio 1992, Berlin 1995, Kyoto 1997).
The society is seeking contact and cooperation within INES, in particular in the area of ethics. INES members, who are active in optics, are invited to join OWLS.
New Security Concerns and Approaches
Proceedings of the INES Workshop in Cambridge MA, USA, 20-21/ 07/ 1998
Opening, Philip Morrison " Situation and perspectives in Russia, Alla Yaroshinskaya " Dangers of nuclear terrorism and proliferation, David Krieger " Prospects for nuclear disarmament, Alice Slater " The Hague Appeal for Peace, Karina Wood "
NATO expansion: Costs and implications, Carl Conetta " U.S. Global roles and interests in the post-Cold War era, Paul Walker " Security concerns in the Middle East, Esmat Ezz " Global action to prevent war, Randall Forsberg.
The proceedings may be ordered from the INES office in Dortmund.
Nuclear Policy and Security
on the eve of the 21st century
June 18th - 20th 1999 (White Nights)
St. Petersburg Peace Council;
Russian Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (RPPNW);
Finnish Peace Committee;
International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), Germany;
Swedish Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (SLMK);
International Network of Engineers and Scientists for Global Responsibility (INES).
As part of Abolition 2000 a Global Network to eliminate nuclear weapons.
Friday June 18th, Morning
Vera Brovkina, St. Petersburg Peace Council;
Dr. Boris Bondarenko, Russian Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War;
Xanthe Hall, IPPNW Germany / Abolition 2000:
International Humanitarian Law and Nuclear Weapons;
Rob Green, World Court Project, UK;
John Burroughs, Western States Legal Foundation, USA;
Nikita Lomagin, University of St. Petersburg / UNA;
Otfried Nassauer, Berlin Information Centre for Transatlantic Security;
Alistair Millar, Fourth Freedom Forum, USA;
Jiri Matousek, INES, Czech Republic;
Solange Fernex, International Peace Bureau, France.
Friday June 18th, Afternoon
Michael Frolov, St. Petersburg Regional University;
Sharon Riggle, Centre for European Security and Disarmament, Belgium;
Present Nuclear Situation in the Russian Federation
Aleksandr Nikitin, Bellona Foundation,*
Lydia Popova, Socio-Ecological Union;
1. European Security;
2. Present Nuclear Situation in the Russian Federation, Evgeny Koltovoi, Arkhangelsk,* Andrei Zolotkov, Murmansk.*
Friday June 18th, Evening
Saturday June 19th, Morning
Russian nuclear Policy and Global Security
Alla Yaroshinskaya, INES, Russia;
Ivan Safrantchouk, PIR Center, Moscow;
Rebecca Johnson, Acronym Institute, London;
Igor Sutyagin, Russian Academy of Sciences and Institute for US and Canada Studies, Moscow;
Alexander Nikitin, CPIS/Pugwash, Moscow;
Security in the Baltic Region
Tatyana Zhdanok, Latvian Movement for Neutrality;
Nikolai Barishnikov, Historian, Russia.
Saturday June 19th, Afternoon
Nina Söderlund, Left Alliance, Finland;*
Kaire Mets, Women's Movement in Pölva, Estonia;
Tomas Giedraitis, Lithuanian Peace Forum;
1. Russian Nuclear Policy and Global Security, Lev Feoktistov, Moscow,* Evgeny Chernov, St. Petersburg;*
2. Security in the Baltic Region, Igor Tipans, Baltic University, Latvia.
Discussion of Statement to Centennial Conference
Saturday June 19th, Evening
Dinner Party with Music
Sunday June 20th, Morning
Sightseeing excursion 12.00, Visit to Institute of Radiological Hygiene.
For more information and registration:
Xanthe Hall, IPPNW Germany
* Not confirmed
This petition has been distributed for signing by NGOs by the
Womens International League for Peace and Freedom
1, rue de Varembe
WILPF - Case postale 28
1211 Geneva 20 Switzerland
Health risks of nuclear energy
Amending the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization (Res. WHA1240, 28.5.59).
Forty years ago, at the onset of the "Atoms for Peace" programme, the severe health and environmental risks of nuclear energy were generally unknown to the public. It was at these times that the World Health Organization (WHO) entered into an agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) which allowed for considerable IAEA authority over WHO studies and projects on health effects of radiation.
This outdated agreement has prevented WHO from being able to act fully and effectively to protect populations from the risks of nuclear technology.
Since then, specific nuclear disasters including those at Sellafield, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl have demonstrated both the health risks of nuclear energy and the shortcomings in this Agreement.
Therefore we request the World Health Assembly to amend the agreement between the IALA and the WHO to:
We request these changes for the following reasons:
The WHO is unduly constrained by the Agreement.
The IAEA Has a Conflict of Interest
The Agreement is Out of Date
Therefore we request that the World Health Assembly amend the Agreement between the IAEA and the WHO.
(Res. WHA12-40 of 28 May 1959).
23 - 26 September 1999, Vienna, Austria
This year, the INES Council meeting will be held at Eichgraben, near Vienna. Following the tradition, it will start with a two-day seminar and will be followed by an excursion. The seminar with the title
Science and Responsibility
at the threshold of the 21st Century
will be an immediate preparation for the INES Conference "Challenges for Science and Engineering in the 21st Century," to be held in Stockholm in June 2000.
The seminar will be from Thursday 23 September, 10.00h until Friday, 15.00h.
The regular Council meeting starts on Friday, 19.00h and continues until Sunday morning.
Sunday afternoon and Monday morning are devoted to the preparation of the Stockholm Conference and will allow for a discussion with the workshop conveners of that conference.
The excursion Sustainable Vienna will take place on Monday afternoon.
ETHICAL CRITERIA FOR SPACE USE
A RUSSIAN PERSPECTIVE
Ruben G. Apressyan
Dr. Ruben Apressyan is Head of the Department of Ethics at the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. The present paper has been delivered at the conference "Space Use and Ethics. Criteria for the Assessment of Future Space Projects," Darmstadt, Germany, March 3-5, 1999. This conference was coorganized by INES.
In Moscow, near the Central Exhibition Center there is a majestic, thirty meters high monument which portrays a rocket rushing to the skies. This rocket is a model of a spacecraft designed by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1887-1935) a founder of modern, at least Russian, theory of Space flights, a scientist and inventor. A figure of Tsiolkovsky himself is established on an extended forward monument base: he is thoughtfully looking at the sky. There is a small, but impressive museum of the history of cosmonautics under the base. The monument launches an Alley of Heroes with busts of Soviet astronauts along its sides the pioneers of Space flights on the one side and four of those who tragically perished during the flights on another side. This monument was established more than thirty years ago and many people consider it as an evident symbol of severe romantics of Space conquest. However, a good friend of mine, an American professor who visited Moscow in 1979, and who was not acquainted with the cutout of Tsiolkovskys space-ship, was sure that the monument was glorifying the Soviet missile corps. He really had reasons for such conjecture: Tsiolkovskys spacecraft looks like a launch-rocket rather than spacecrafts like "Vostok," "Sojus," or "Apollo" and the busts at the Alley of Heroes present, with a few exceptions, people in military uniform. There is certain tragic irony in such an impression: most of the common people used to consider the break through the skies as an embodiment of the old human dream to overcome the power of gravitation and come closer to the stars. Although this break-through towards the stars was practically provided by talented scientists, constructors, and technicians extraordinary selfless individuals and enthusiasts, the Soviet space program at the beginning was entirely a military program. In 1945-1953 the program of inventing and developing Space-rocket technology (as well as nuclear weapons) was supervised by the energetic and tireless Laurentiy Beria, much broader known as the leader of Stalins secret police (NKVD-GB) and coordinator of mass repressions from the late 1930s till the beginning of the 1950s.
Romanticism and militarism are the extreme attitudes towards Space mastering and use. They set up the most contradictory criteria for the evaluation of various kinds of Space use. Both romanticism and militarism are in fact far from the real human needs. Therefore, militarism can easily dodge under romanticism, as it was in the USSR either in the case of developing aircraft construction in the late 1930s, or in the case of space technology in the 1950-70s. Militarism can openly be dressed as romanticism and/or represent romanticism as it happens in our days in North Korea. But romanticism, in turn, is also ready to use the huge military resources.
Three principal attitudes towards socially significant projects
Broadly and roughly speaking, ethics deals with the value and the normative dimensions of any phenomenon, specifically with such value and normative aspects which refer to a spiritual or at least social ideal. From the ethical point of view and regarding the task to elaborate social-ethical criteria for evaluating space projects, the issue of Space use doesnt seem to be completely peculiar. Apparently, space projects should be evaluated according to the same criteria as any other socially significant project. Such are all large scale projects, or projects with a global effect.
The well known Swiss theologian and philosopher, and public figure Hans Küng, speaking about the necessity of global ethos for the new world order, put forward a task to develop the ethics of responsibility in opposition to the ethics of belief and the ethics of success. In another normative language, maybe a more traditional one, I would interpret this theoretical scheme in a different way, though my position in many aspects positively correlates with Küngs theory and spirit. In my account we may deal with perfectionism (that partly correlates with the ethics of belief in Küngs conception), with pragmatism (that partly correlates with the ethics of success in Küngs conception) and utilitarianism (that partly correlates with the ethics of responsibility in Küngs conception).
By perfectionism I understand such a value position and a relative activity strategy that are oriented to the ideal of human excellence (interpreted either as individual perfection, sometimes exclusively in soteriological sense (or the sense of salvation), or as ideal social organization). By pragmatism I understand a value position and a relative activity strategy that are oriented to particular (individual, corporate, or group) good. By utilitarianism I understand a value position and a relative activity strategy that are oriented to the common good.
Taking into account the early history and the spirit of space research and projects, we can see that initially they were inspired just exactly by perfectionist inspiration of their creators. Breaking through Space used to be considered as an important step towards getting rid of injustice and sufferings that reigned on Earth.
The word "Space" in Russian, like in German, sounds "kosmos." It is evident, that this word was borrowed from Greek (the word "space" is etymologically rooted in Latin "spate"). In Russian there is also a collocation of a Greek "kosmos" and the Russian word is identical to "space," so "cosmic space" expresses almost the same thing twice. The Greek word "kosmos" is polisemantic. It certainly designates "world," "Universe," "sky." However, in its first and direct meaning it designates "adornment," "decoration," "attire." (Thence in the New Testament the word "kosmos" was used in the meaning of all temporal and terrestrial goods. It was Homer who understood "kosmos" as heaven; in the New Testament "kosmos" means the world of terrestrial, particularly, the world of those who didnt accept Christ. Then, in Greek "kosmos" means "order" (order at home and in this respect decency). But "kosmos" means also an order in city-state (polis), so, it is a state organization. In Russian this word retains the meaning of integrity. The same in English: the Oxford dictionary expounds the word "cosmos" as "the universe as an ordered whole." As such, this word is altogether accordant to the consciousness of excellence, escaping particularism and partiality for universality and integrity.
The above mentioned Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was not only a scientist and inventor, he was also an original thinker and science fiction writer, who in his novels and essays antedated many subjects and plots of the 20th century science fiction. Tsiolkovsky belongs to the school of Russian Cosmism not dominating but still rather popular (and popular today) in Russian cultural and philosophical tradition. Cosmism is an intellectual and spiritual orientation towards the principled unity of humankind and Space. It is clear that thus understood Cosmism is the starting point of any spiritual and cultural tradition. In modern times Cosmism was not an exclusively Russian phenomenon; Cosmic ideas used to be rather spread at the end of the 19th and the first part of the 20th centuries. For instance, the French Roman-Catholic theologian and scientist P. Teilhard de Chardin surely was a Cosmist. However, in Russia this tradition was variously developed in philosophy (Vladimir Soloviov, Nikolay Fiodorov, Leo Karsavin) and science (besides Tsiolkovsky, Alexander Tchizhevsky and Vladimir Vernadsky), as well as in the arts: in poetry (Fiodr Tiutchev, Valery Briusov, Nikolay Zabolotsky) and painting (Mikhail Nesterov, Nikolay Rerikh, the group "Amaravella").
In Cosmism one can see the resurrection of the holistic perception of the Universe a theme of space correlates with themes of global environment and social ethics . Tsiolkovsky justified the idea of unification of humankind within the framework of an environmentally oriented theory, rather than in religious or social-political frames. The issue of humans attitude towards Nature was one of his priorities; a human being was considered as an organic part of Nature.
Tsiolkovsky considered the break to Space (he justified the technical aspects of this break in an academic article "The Research of World Space by Jet Apparatus," published in 1903) as only one point on a way towards unlimited perfection of humans as a citizens of the Universe cosmopolitan in the initial sense of this word. At the end of his life Tsiolkovsky called himself a Communist, so far his social utopia had been always based on the idea of community. Still he was dreaming about the future society as a conglomerate of communities spread over the Solar system (somewhere on the orbit of Mars). All his life, except in the last fifteen years, Tsiolkovsky lived in need; in his works he completely ignored the economic aspect of the development of space technologies. His projects had certainly no economic justification. As a scientist he considered himself a materialist. However as a thinker and writer he was an idealist and romanticist.
Today we would evaluate Tsiolkovskys views as entirely scientistic. Although he was writing about the ethics and philosophy of Space , his teaching was in fact lacking the ethical-spiritual component: he considered perfection as a natural and scientifically arranged process, rather than a result of self-determined spiritual efforts undertaken by a person. Meanwhile, a person starts approaching excellence by changing himself and only then by self-realization in external activity. And vice versa, a perfectionist program is doomed to fiasco, if it starts with changes of activity, especially geared on the alterations of the social and cultural environment. Nevertheless, the romantic idealist Tsiolkovsky forestalled an important criterion for the evaluation of Space projects. Though this criterion is certainly abstract, it sets up a necessarily high standard of evaluation, or looking at this from another side an ethical restriction for Space projects. It is the following: Space is the embodied Integrity and it should be retained as a field for activities of people as representatives of the whole humankind, under whatever national banners they were engaging into these activities. This is not a functional or teleological criterion; it refers to the principal attitudes towards any activity in Space.
Tsiolkovsys projects were developed in practice owing to people who were very practical. Tsiolkovsky had always remained alone with his designs and projects. Those who consistently attempted to realize them in practice had to associate their designing and project activity, not speaking about tests and industrial models, with special firms and institutions. Space technology and space programs, especially interplanetary ones, require enormous human and material resources. They are impossible without a branchy scientific-technological and social-economic infrastructure, without a large-scaled state budget. Thus they are volence-nolence becoming a part of our particularized and alienated world they spontaneously assume the negative features of this world. Lets try to imagine how Space research would have developed if it hadnt been taken place at the time of the cold war and military opposition of the superpowers and military blocks. Space projects, for a long time used to remain a part of military projects; Space projects were considered as a potential theoretical and constructive resource for military projects. Of course, parallel to military research scientific projects were developed. In fact, so are all the projects devoted to investigate planets, the Sun and far Space. However, for decades they were considered by the Soviet leaders as an important argument in ideological opposition of systems. It is symptomatic, that the Soviet program of pilot flights to the Moon was closed, once it became evident, that the Americans won the game in that competition (and not because the launch vehicles first testing was a complete failure). It is also interesting to mention that in the Soviet mass media reports on the events in Space, beginning with the 1970s, one could always take a hint at their military potential. The limits of the arms race in Space were also determined by the strategic factor of mutual military deterrence. The huge military potential of the use of Space makes clear that the rate of mastering the deep-sea space, also requiring huge intellectual, technological, and financial expenses, but still incompatible with that of mastering Space, was much more modest during the same decades. The dynamics of Space use in the post-Soviet Russia clearly demonstrates that the recession in this field has been definitely commensurate the reduction of national budgets in military innovations and fundamental science.
Militarism is the extreme and the most evident form of pragmatic attitude towards Space use. However, the progressing development of initially non-military Space use first of all in developing Space means for communication and partly Space means for meteoric observation naturally takes place at those fields where the highest commercial effect is possible. More and more Space technologies are becoming the subject of business activity. They have already begun to be a sort of merchandise at the market of high-tech services. This tendency of Space use is mostly fraught with transference of market competition with all its economic controversies and environment risks into Space and with functional privatization of the near-earth Space (which is really limited in respect to making business), or even, looking prospectively, its segmentation, like it happened in the extension of the national jurisdiction up to the 100-mile zone of the inshore shelf. Taking into account the environmental danger of commercializing Space, one should avow that militarization and nuclearization of Space is not the only threat.
Regarding militarization and commercialization of Space, Tsiolkovskys perfectionist criterion appears to be almost significant. Integrity confronts particularization. Space as physical matter is naturally perceived as an alien and hostile environment as "beyondness." The perfectionist criterion determines an attitude towards Space as an actual human environment and, hence, as a prerequisite of humankind. The perfectionist criterion requires to understand pragmatism: it is pragmatic to take into account not only short-term goals and results, but long-term goals and results as well, not only local, but also global effects of projects and activities.
Such an attitude towards Space is altogether natural under its esoteric, metaphysical, or mystical perception. These speculative criteria are set up within the framework of "soft" knowledge, as it may be considered from a scientific point of view. But it is significant, that these criteria have appeared to be the prototype of a practical imperative, the absolute status of which we have realized by the experiences of the technical and commercial mastering of Space.
I trace the samples of universalistic understanding of Space in the context of the modern technical invasion into it, in the steps which have been undertaken at least twice within the NASA projects of far-Space investigation. It is usual, that national symbols are set on board of a Space vehicle. But it is a typical universalistic gesture to set next to national symbols an appeal to an alien reason on behalf of whole humankind, as it was on an American "Voyager" sent about ten years ago or more to Jupiter an then to the frontiers of our solar system and, who knows, may be further towards the center of the Universe. Another pattern is a recent one: in a special lab for investigating comet dust, Americans set a special plate with the names of 1,000,000 people from all over the Earth, who wished their names to be literally perpetuated in the Universe. By the way, the USSR was the first who started the practice of international launches. At the beginning it was a completely non-commercial collaboration. It is evident, that the scale of international openness was determined by political, rather than by scientific and technological priorities of the USSR (thus astronauts not only from the countries of the Warsaw pact, but also from Cuba, Mongolia and even Afghanistan were launched into Space). Nevertheless, it was a significant step towards making Space international. In technical aspect the "Apollo" "Sojus" project (July 1975) may be considered as a prototype of a future international Space Lab. But at the same time it was also a sign of breaking the total opposition of the superpowers, a sign of an alliance of humankind in Space.
The Latin root of the word "utilitarianism" "utilitas" may confound us and stipulate the wrong associations with self-concern and private good. Meanwhile, the ethical ideal of utilitarianism as it was set up by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill affirms the priority of common and general good over all other human goals. On the level of moral philosophy Utilitarianism is opposed by Cantinas and Kantian arguments against Utilitarianism are certainly solid. However, the advantage of Utilitarianism is in the attempt to apply non-romantic ethical criteria to practical activity. It is significant for me that Mill today is much more known as the author of an essay "On Liberty," rather than for his treaty "Utilitarianism." This is an ethics directly oriented to the life in society, where human rights are the matter of high esteem. Above I referred to Hans Küngs conception and his proposal regarding the global ethos. The theory of global ethos is to be based on the philosophy of utilitarianism. Global ethos is a patter and model for Space ethos. So, the utilitarian criterion may be formulated as follows: Space use should serve the greatest good of all, humankind. (It is dolorous to see that at the today level of mass consciousness this statement that Space belongs to all humankind can become entirely evident at the face of meeting an alien reason. One can expect that this meeting will be fortunately followed by agreements fixing a kind of jurisdiction for close and near space. Therefore I dont say that Space belongs to the universal reason, though I believe, that it is the case).
According to those who hear the morpheme "utilitas" in the word "utilitarianism," the utilitarian ethics has to be based on the Golden Rule ("Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them." Mat. 7:12). However, the golden rule set up an ethic based on equity, mutuality, and justice. Utilitarianism asserts the necessity to promote the public good irrespectively to mutuality. The issue becomes completely transparent being applied to the practice of Space use: mutuality and equity are impossible between Space and non-Space states. So Space ethos has to be based on another, more advanced and sublime ethical principle the Commandment of Love (Mat. 22:39). But this commandment calls to be inspired by love to Perfection, or God, in ones love to a neighbor. Thus the utilitarian ethics appears to concur with perfectionist ethics. The utilitarian and perfectionist criteria are inter-contingent upon each other.
The institutional and instrumental aspects of Space ethos
Space ethos, like the global one, requires a shift of the point of view in ethics. Usually morality is considered as a personal choice within the limits of individual existence. In the context of Space ethics, morality is still a personal choice, but within the limits of the professionally, politically, communally, regionally, and globally determined existence realm of activity. But if so, how ethics can be both, practically relevant and not destructive for an individual? It is clear, that in the context of regula of institutional functioning, a person faces conflicts between his professional and status commitments and his moral duties. (The most well known case of this kind from the history of astronautics is Robert Lunds dilemma at the eve of the Challenger launch on the 27th of January, 1986).
However, the development of Space ethos is not a problem only of engineering ethics or corporation ethics, it is a political problem as well. The development of an appropriate Space ethos requires the establishment of international institutions, better under the aegis of the United Nations and open by their nature, like The International Commission on the Global Governance (1995) or The World Commission on Culture and Development (1995), or The Inter-Action Council "In Search of Global Ethical Standards" (1996). It might be purposeful to inculcate the use of Space agenda into these institutions equally with environment or global-ethos agendas. Through such institutions the problem of an institutional basis for the standards of Space ethics could be solved: like the principles and values of individual ethics, for instance perfectionism or altruism. Completely based on personal choice and individual responsibility, the codes of social (corporation) ethics need institutional sanctions and warrantees.
Meanwhile, to invade such institutions one has to be provided with positive normative projects. Therefore we approach another important problem: to concretize certainly rather abstract perfectionist-utilitarian criteria of evaluation Space strategies, programs, technologies and particular practical actions in Space. This will require special studies on the generalization of empirical data: (a) concrete conflict and tragic situations, (b) documents which contain "philosophy" of space projects, if such exists (and if not, reconstruction of such "philosophies" on the basis of various sources).
At last, both positive normative statements (codes) and the activity of corresponding organizations and institutions should be broadly publicized. Space ethics should become an important spiritual determinant for scientists, constructors, technicians, astronauts, as medical ethics during the last fifteen-twenty years have become a factor of health-care activities and a basis for public debates and judgments of events in this sphere.
I wish to believe that this conference the first one on such topic in our Universe will become the starting point for new normative and philosophical projects.
 F.I.Girenok. Ecologia Civilizaciya. Noosphera, Moscow: "Nauka" Publishers, 1987, pp. 158, 162.
 See: Tsiolkovsky K.E., Scientific Ethics (Kaluga, 1930);
Space Philosophy (Kaluga, 1930).
Challenges for Science and Engineering
in the 21st Century
Stockholm, Sweden, 14-18 June, 2000
Are you concerned about where development is headed with globalization and increasing load on natural resources and decreasing attention paid to human values? Do you consider how you as a professional might contribute to sustainable development? Some of the answers to this will come out of the INES 2000 Conference, an NGO event in Stockholm in June 2000.
This is an invitation to sign up for more information about the conference. You may also file a preliminary registration for the conference itself.
You are welcome to visit our web page:
for further information. You can also join our mailing list for continuous updates with the latest information and our conference newsletter.
By whom - for whom?
The conference is organized by
INES, the International Network of Engineers and Scientists for Global Responsibility
in cooperation with
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences,
The Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm.
The conference is supported by the following organizations:
The European Physical Society;
The International Federation of Commercial, Clerical, Professional and Technical Employees (FIET);
The Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination of Research;
Swedish Scientists and Engineers Against Nuclear Arms (SEANA);
The Swedish Pugwash Group.
It is intended for participants from all over the world who are professionals or students or otherwise active in society concerned with sustainable development and a responsible use of science and technology.
Theme areas focusing on important issues for sustainability
The conference will consist of several plenary lectures and workshops addressing 4 theme areas:
In the plenary program and in the workshops, special attention will be paid to youth and gender issues. There will be a special focus on the development of science in developing countries.
Why this kind of conference now?
The year 2000 offers a unique opportunity to highlight and discuss the role of science and engineering in our societies as well as the changes of direction that many of us see as necessary for a peaceful and sustainable future.
The modern scientific project, set in motion 400 years ago, has resulted in a world where technology is a prime driving force for good and for bad. The future tasks and directions of science and engineering in different societies is the central topic for the conference. Special attention is paid to the ethical dimension of professionalism in these areas.
Pre-conferences on additional topics
Before the main conference, a number of one-day pre-conferences will be held on the following subjects:
Localized around the KTH campus in Stockholm
The Conference will be held on the premises of the Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm. Part of the program will be held on the grounds of the Academy of Sciences, north of Stockholm.
See INTERNET: http://www.kth.se/index-eng.htm , http://www.kva.se
The conference will promote a wider dialogue between different actors in science and engineering: individuals, institutions, professional societies, industrial companies, governments, international associations, concerned non-governmental organizations.
It will follow up on results of the Hague Appeal for Peace Conference in May 1999, the UNESCO World Science Conference in Budapest in June, and the 2nd Interdisciplinary Conference on the Evolution of World Order (WOC) in Toronto, also in June 1999.
The Conference Secretariat
INES 2000 Conference Secretariat
Prof. Ana Maria Cetto (México), UNESCO Consultant;
Prof. Ricardo Diez Hochleitner (Spain), President of the Club of Rome;
Prof. Giacomo Elias (Italy), President of ISO;
Prof. George Galbraith (England), Nobel Price Economics;
Dr. Mats-Olov Hedblom (Sweden), Environmental Manager, Ericsson;
Prof. V.V. Krishna (India), School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University;
Prof. Ervin Laszlo (Italy), President of the Club of Budapest;
Prof. Jan Nilsson (Sweden), President Swedish Academy of Sciences;
Prof. Joseph Rotblat (England), Peace Nobel Price 1995;
Dra. Hebe Vessuri (Venezuela), IVIC, Department of Social Studies of Science.
Lars Rydén, (INES, Sweden) , chair;
Hartwig Spitzer (INES, Germany), vice-chair;
Stefan Björnson (SEANA, Sweden);
Per-Eric Boivie (FIET, Sweden);
Reiner Braun (INES, Germany);
Bengt Gustafsson (KVA, Sweden);
Bo Kjellén (Pugwash, Sweden);
Bengt Lörstad (EPS, Sweden);
Ulrike Otto (INES, Germany);
Christer Sanne (KTH, Sweden);
Armin Tenner (INES, Netherlands).
Stefan Björnson (Sweden);
Per-Erik Boivie (Sweden);
Reiner Braun (Germany );
Prof. Claudia von Braunmühl (Germany);
Prof. Ogunlade Davidson ( Sierra Leone);
Dr. Esmat Ezz (Egypt);
Prof. Sylvie Faucheux (France);
Prof. Bengt Gustafsson (Sweden);
Dr. Alla Jaroshinskaja (Russia);
Dr. David Krieger (USA);
Dr. Guillermo Lemarchand (Argentina);
Prof. Pentti Malaska (Finland);
Prof. Carlos Mallmann (Argentina);
Prof. Luis Masperi (Argentina);
Prof. Jiri Matousek (Czech Republic);
Dr. Marc Ollivier (France);
Dr. John Peet (New Zealand);
Prof. Valerij Petrosyan (Russia);
Prof. Lars Ryden (Sweden);
Dr. Christer Sanne (Sweden);
Prof. Philip Smith (Netherlands);
Joachim Spangenberg (Germany);
Prof. Hartwig Spitzer (Germany);
Sandra Striewski (Germany);
Prof. Armin Tenner (The Netherlands);
Prof. Gunnar Tibell (Sweden);
Prof. Diana Uerge-Vorsatz (Hungary);
Prof. JoAnn Valenti (USA).
INES 2000 PLENARY LECTURES
1. Scientific thinking and human development, hegemony and violence.
2. What kind of science and technology for 8 billion people?
3. Confronting and transforming the international economic and financial system
4. Dynamics of evolution and the role of humans
5. Perspective for the economic sciences
6. Perspective for the physical sciences: Working with complexity and emergence
7. The culture of responsibility: How to establish universal standards of responsibilities and institutions
8. New paradigms for the engineering sciences
9. Rebuilding research capacities and science education in less developed countries
10. Panel future universities
11. The impact of increasing women's participation in Science and Technology
12. Strategies and challenges for strengthening the role of women in science and technology
INES 2000 WORKSHOPS
THEME AREA A -- THE CULTURE OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING AND THE
A1: Science, technology and social change in a long term perspective
A2: The policy dimensions of science and technology strategies
A3: Towards a culture of individual and institutional responsibility
A4: Challenges and promotion of transdisciplinarity
A5: Science, technology and education
A6: Science and technology in the gender perspective
THEME AREA B -- SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING FOR A FINITE WORLD
B1: Spirit and rationality of sustainability and the Earth Charter Process
B2: Risk assessment of controversial technologies in a larger context
B3: Inventing and refining sustainable technologies and services
B4: Carrying capacity challenges
B5: Modeling an open future: Potential and limits of the art of modeling
B6: Establishing, enforcing and implementing environmental standards:
Contributions of scientists and engineers in a larger context
THEME AREA C -- HUMANIZING ECONOMY IN GLOBAL CONTEXT
C1: Prospects for real economic development: Rethinking the dominant socio-economic policies
C2: Changing the global financial architecture
C3: Local strategies in response to economic globalization
C4: Economic growth, ecological changes, consumption issues and social justice: Short and long term
C5: Economy and societies in the age of new information technologies
THEME AREA D -- STEPS TO WAR PREVENTION AND LASTING PEACE
D1: Assessment of trends in armament and conflict resolution
D2: The demilitarization of engineering and science
D3: Scientists' contribution to peace building
D4: Abolition of nuclear weapons
D5: Towards disarmament and peace
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